Prostaglandin F2a (PGF2a), or dinoprost is a naturally occurring prostaglandin.
|Prostaglandin metabolism in human hair follicle.||Prostaglandins regulate a wide number of physiological functions. Recently PGF(2alpha) analogue such as latanoprost was shown to have a real impact on hair regrowth. The aim of this study was to investigate and describe the expression profile in human hair follicle of prostaglandin metabolism key enzymes, i.e. carbonyl reductase-1 (CBR1), microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-2 (mPGES-2), cytosolic prostaglandin E synthase (cPGES), the aldoketoreductase AKR1C1 and the prostaglandin F synthase AKR1C3. Quantitative RT-PCR on plucked hair follicles revealed some sex-related differences, mPGES-2 and AKR1C3 expression levels being higher in women. Cell and hair follicle compartment specificity was investigated using Western blot, PGE(2) and PGF(2alpha) ELISA assays and immunohistochemistry. Most of the hair cell types were endowed with prostaglandin metabolism machinery and were thus able to produce PGE(2) and/or PGF(2alpha). The epithelial part of the hair bulb was identified by immunohistology and EIA assays as the main source of prostaglandin synthesis and interconversion. All these observations support the concept that prostaglandins might be involved in hair growth and differentiation control.|
|Vaginal prostaglandin (PGE2 and PGF2a) for induction of labour at term..||BACKGROUND: Prostaglandins have been used for induction of labour since the 1960s. Initial work focused on prostaglandin F2a as prostaglandin E2 was considered unsuitable for a number of reasons. With the development of alternative routes of administration, comparisons were made between various formulations of vaginal prostaglandins. This is one of a series of reviews of methods of cervical ripening and labour induction using standardised methodology. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of vaginal prostaglandins E2 and F2a for third trimester cervical ripening or induction of labour in comparison with placebo/no treatment or other vaginal prostaglandins (except misoprostol). SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register (May 2003) and bibliographies of relevant papers. SELECTION CRITERIA: Clinical trials comparing vaginal prostaglandins used for third trimester cervical ripening or labour induction with placebo/no treatment or other methods listed above it on a predefined list of labour induction methods. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: A strategy was developed to deal with the large volume and complexity of trial data relating to labour induction. This involved a two-stage method of data extraction. MAIN RESULTS: In total, 101 studies were considered: 43 excluded and 57 (10,039 women) included. One study is awaiting assessment. Vaginal prostaglandin E2 compared with placebo or no treatment reduced the likelihood of vaginal delivery not being achieved within 24 hours (18% versus 99%, relative risk (RR) 0.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14 to 0.25, 2 trials, 384 women), there was no evidence of a difference between caesarean section rates although the risk of uterine hyperstimulation with fetal heart rate changes was increased (4.6% versus 0.51%, RR 4.14, 95% CI 1.93 to 8.90, 13 trials, 1203 women). Comparison of vaginal prostaglandin F2a with placebo showed similar caesarean section rates but the cervical score was more likely to be improved (15% versus 60%, RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.49, 5 trials, 467 women), and the risk of oxytocin augmentation reduced (53.9% versus 89.1%, RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.84, 11 trials, 1265 women) with the use of vaginal PGF2a. There were insufficient data to make meaningful conclusions for the comparison of vaginal PGE2 and PGF2a.PGE2 tablet, gel and pessary appear to be as efficacious as each other. Lower dose regimens, as defined in the review, appear as efficacious as higher dose regimens. REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS: The primary aim of this review was to examine the efficacy of vaginal prostaglandin E2 and F2a. This is reflected by an increase in successful vaginal delivery rates in 24 hours, no increase in operative delivery rates and significant improvements in cervical favourability within 24 to 48 hours. Further research is needed to quantify the cost-analysis of induction of labour with vaginal prostaglandins, with special attention to different methods of administration.|
|Topical bimatoprost 0.03% and iatrogenic eyelid and orbital lipodystrophy.||The prostaglandin F2a (PGF2a) analogue bimatoprost 0.03% (Allergan, Inc, Irvine, California) has been employed for the treatment of hypotrichosis since it gained Food and Drug Administration approval as Latisse in 2008. In this report, the authors retrospectively review the cases of 7 patients who presented to their outpatient ophthalmology clinic with glaucoma. These patients had periorbital hollowing due to fat atrophy as a side effect of topical ophthalmic bimatoprost therapy. The series of patients described in this report emphasizes the small but significant risk of periocular fat changes associated with bimatoprost 0.03%, which is the exact formulation marketed as Lumigan for glaucoma treatment. Patients using Latisse for its cosmetic enhancement of eyelash length should be warned of this potentially disfiguring side effect, since the cosmetic and ophthalmic preparations are identical. Such changes can be irreversible, and the implications of the decision to prescribe this drug either in the form of an eyelash application or for topical ophthalmic use should be clearly understood by both clinicians and patients alike.|
|Decreased high-density lipoprotein serum levels associated with topical bimatoprost therapy.||The aim of this study is to report an adverse systemic response associated with topical bimatoprost therapy. CASE REPORT: An otherwise healthy 58-year-old woman with primary open-angle glaucoma was started on bimatoprost drops once a day. Bimatoprost is a structural analog of prostaglandin F2 alpha-ethanolamide (PGF2a), a class of compounds that in systemic form has been associated with alterations in serum lipid levels. The patient subsequently experienced a significant decrease in her high-density lipoprotein (HDL) serum levels, which subsequently returned to normal on discontinuation of bimatoprost. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first published report of a possible association between topical bimatoprost therapy and decreased serum HDL levels. Because of the significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease and morbidity associated with low HDL levels, further study is strongly indicated.|