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Saw palmetto

(SAW pal MET toe)
Serenoa Repens, Permixon, LSESr
Category5-alpha-reductase inhibitor

Parameter Effect Result on hair growth
DHT GOOD
5a-reductases GOOD
PGD2 UNKNOWN
PGE2 UNKNOWN
PGF2a UNKNOWN
CRTH2 UNKNOWN

Where to buy


This is a great brand of Saw Palmetto I take daily and it works! I think it may be just as good as Finastiride. Saw Palmetto

This Saw Palmetto contains b-sitosterol that has been shown to enhance the effect of Saw Palmetto. Saw Palmetto with Beta-Sitosterol

This Saw Palmetto contains Zinc, Lycopene & Pumpkin seed. Saw Palmetto

Information

Description Saw palmetto(Serenoa Repens) extract has been used for at least 200 years to treat various conditions. It acts as an inhibitor of 5-alpha-reductase. Saw Palmetto also interferes with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) binding to the androgen receptors. Many studies have shown it's ability and effectivness to inhibit 5-alpha-reductase.

In one study (Delos 1994) 320mg/day of Saw Palmetto was found to be 15 times more effective at reducing 5-alpha-reductase over a 1mg/day finastiride dose and 3 times more effective than a 5mg/day dose.

Another study (Raynaud 2002) confirmed that type 1 and type 2 5 alpha-reductase is inhibited by Saw Palmetto.

An ealier study (Sultan 1984) showed a 50% inhibition of DHT binding to receptors using a "Serenoa repens" lipidic extract.

Once study found the Saw palmetto reduced the mean uptake of dihydrotestosterone and testosterone by 40.9% and 41.9% respectively (el-Sheikh 1988).

In vitro studies have also shown that LSESr inhibits both type 1 and type 2 5-alpha-reductase much like Dutasteride, whereas Finasteride inhibits only type 2 5-alpha-reductase (Iehle 1995).

Side effects such as sexual disfunction are reported to be much lower than Finastiride. (Carraro 1996)

Typical Results Similar to other 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors with perhaps a milder effect.
Typical Dosages 160mg to 320mg daily.
Significant Side Effects Nausea, diarrhea, dizziness, or headache.
Pharmacology Pharmacodynamics Serenoa repens (Permixon) has been available for several years for the treatment of men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The drug is the n-hexane lipidosterolic extract of the dwarf American palm (also known as Serenoa repens) and is a complex mixture of various compounds. A number of pharmacodynamic effects have been demonstrated with the lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESR), suggesting multiple mechanisms of action including in vitro inhibition of both type 1 and type 2 isoenzymes of 5 alpha-reductase and interference with binding of dihydrotestosterone to cytosolic androgen receptors in prostate cells. In controlled clinical trials in men with BPH, oral administration of Serenoa repens 160 mg twice daily for 1 to 3 months was generally superior to placebo in improving subjective symptoms, such as dysuria, as well as objective parameters. The frequency of nocturia was reduced by 33 to 74%, while urinary frequency during the day decreased by 11 to 43% and peak urinary flow rate increased by 26 to 50% with Serenoa repens. Corresponding values for placebo were 13 to 39%, 1 to 29% and 2 to 35%. The only large comparative trial conducted to date, in which > 1000 men with moderate BPH were randomised to receive Serenoa repens 160 mg twice daily or finasteride 5 mg once daily for 6 months, demonstrated similar efficacy between the two drugs. No statistically significant difference was demonstrated between treatment groups for improvement in patient self-rated quality-of-life scores and the primary end-point of objective symptom score; International Prostate Symptom Score improved by 37% with Serenoa repens compared with 39% with finasteride. In much smaller comparative trials, few significant differences were demonstrated between Serenoa repens and alpha 1-receptor antagonists, and larger randomised trials of adequate duration are required to better compare the clinical efficacy of these drugs. The most frequently reported adverse events in clinical trials with Serenoa repens have been minor gastrointestinal problems (e.g. nausea and abdominal pain). In conclusion, Serenoa repens is well tolerated and has greater efficacy than placebo and similar efficacy to finasteride in improving symptoms in men with BPH. Although there is a need for further comparative studies, particularly with alpha 2-receptor antagonists, available data indicate that Serenoa repens is a useful alternative to alpha 1-receptor antagonists and finasteride in the treatment of men with BPH.

Clinical Studies

Clinical StudiesAbstract
Serenoa Repens: Does It have Any Role in the Management of Androgenetic Alopecia? Serenoa repens is one among the many naturally occurring 5 alpha reductase (5aR) inhibitors which has gained popularity as a magical remedy for androgenetic alopecia. It is widely advertised on the web and sold by direct marketing. Used as a self-medication, there is a risk of missing the early detection of prostate cancer. There is little evidence to support its efficacy, warranting larger clinical trials on androgenetic alopecia.
Serenoa repens (Permixon). A review of its pharmacology and therapeutic efficacy in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Serenoa repens (Permixon) has been available for several years for the treatment of men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The drug is the n-hexane lipidosterolic extract of the dwarf American palm (also known as Serenoa repens) and is a complex mixture of various compounds. A number of pharmacodynamic effects have been demonstrated with the lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESR), suggesting multiple mechanisms of action including in vitro inhibition of both type 1 and type 2 isoenzymes of 5 alpha-reductase and interference with binding of dihydrotestosterone to cytosolic androgen receptors in prostate cells. In controlled clinical trials in men with BPH, oral administration of Serenoa repens 160 mg twice daily for 1 to 3 months was generally superior to placebo in improving subjective symptoms, such as dysuria, as well as objective parameters. The frequency of nocturia was reduced by 33 to 74%, while urinary frequency during the day decreased by 11 to 43% and peak urinary flow rate increased by 26 to 50% with Serenoa repens. Corresponding values for placebo were 13 to 39%, 1 to 29% and 2 to 35%. The only large comparative trial conducted to date, in which > 1000 men with moderate BPH were randomised to receive Serenoa repens 160 mg twice daily or finasteride 5 mg once daily for 6 months, demonstrated similar efficacy between the two drugs. No statistically significant difference was demonstrated between treatment groups for improvement in patient self-rated quality-of-life scores and the primary end-point of objective symptom score; International Prostate Symptom Score improved by 37% with Serenoa repens compared with 39% with finasteride. In much smaller comparative trials, few significant differences were demonstrated between Serenoa repens and alpha 1-receptor antagonists, and larger randomised trials of adequate duration are required to better compare the clinical efficacy of these drugs. The most frequently reported adverse events in clinical trials with Serenoa repens have been minor gastrointestinal problems (e.g. nausea and abdominal pain). In conclusion, Serenoa repens is well tolerated and has greater efficacy than placebo and similar efficacy to finasteride in improving symptoms in men with BPH. Although there is a need for further comparative studies, particularly with alpha 2-receptor antagonists, available data indicate that Serenoa repens is a useful alternative to alpha 1-receptor antagonists and finasteride in the treatment of men with BPH.
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of botanically derived inhibitors of 5-alpha-reductase in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. BACKGROUND: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is characterized by the structural miniaturization of androgen-sensitive hair follicles in susceptible individuals and is anatomically defined within a given pattern of the scalp. Biochemically, one contributing factor of this disorder is the conversion of testosterone (T) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) via the enzyme 5-alpha reductase (5AR). This metabolism is also key to the onset and progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Furthermore, AGA has also been shown to be responsive to drugs and agents used to treat BPH. Of note, certain botanical compounds have previously demonstrated efficacy against BPH. Here, we report the first example of a placebo-controlled, double-blind study undertaken in order to examine the benefit of these botanical substances in the treatment of AGA. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to test botanically derived 5AR inhibitors, specifically the liposterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr) and beta-sitosterol, in the treatment of AGA. Subjects: Included in this study were males between the ages of 23 and 64 years of age, in good health, with mild to moderate AGA. RESULTS: The results of this pilot study showed a highly positive response to treatment. The blinded investigative staff assessment report showed that 60% of (6/10) study subjects dosed with the active study formulation were rated as improved at the final visit. CONCLUSIONS: This study establishes the effectiveness of naturally occurring 5AR inhibitors against AGA for the first time, and justifies the expansion to larger trials. Recently, several clinical trials have been reported demonstrating the efficacy of botanical compounds in the treatment of a number of androgen dependent conditions, and, specifically, BPH. For example, among 1,098 BPH patients tested in one recent study, the general safety profile of the lipsterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr 320 mg/day), or saw palmetto berry extract, compared favorably with that of finasteride, and sexual side effects were less common with the extract than with the drug. In particular the use of this extract has not been associated with erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory disturbance, or altered libido (Wilt et al. 2000a). Remarkably, in another biochemical study, it was found that LSESr was a 3-fold more effective inhibitor than finasteride (5 mg/day) at concentrations adjusted to the recommended doses for BPH treatment. It should be noted that finasteride as indicated for AGA is dosed significantly lower (1 mg/day), suggesting, a 15-fold more potent level of inhibition at the recommended daily dose of LSESr (320 mg/day) (Delos et al. 1994).
Inhibition of the activity of 'basic' 5 alpha-reductase (type 1) detected in DU 145 cells and expressed in insect cells. The purpose of this study was 2-fold: (1) to identify the 5 alpha-reductase (5 alpha-R) isozyme(s) present in DU 145 cells, a human cell-line of low androgen sensitivity derived from a cerebral metastasis of an epithelial prostate cancer; and (2) to compare the inhibitory potencies of three compounds on the 'basic' 5 alpha-R isozyme expressed in a baculovirus-directed insect cell system. Conversion of testosterone (T) into 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in DU 145 cells was measured by HPLC coupled to a Flo-one HP radioactivity detector. DU 145 cells exhibited 5 alpha-R activity (21 pmol DHT/min/mg protein) at pH 7.4 which disappeared at pH 5.5 suggesting that, of the two genomically distinct human isozymes identified so far, type 1 5 alpha-R is expressed in DU 145 cells. This was confirmed by at least two observations: first, 5 alpha-R activity in DU 145 cells was inhibited with much higher potency by 4-MA than by finasteride which is known to be a very poor competitor of the 'basic' enzyme (IC50s = 2.8 +/- 0.2 and 264 +/- 55 nM, respectively). Second, only the type 1 5 alpha-R cDNA and not type 2 5 alpha-R cDNA hybridized with DU 145 RNA. A high potency differential was also recorded for the inhibition of 'basic' type 1 5 alpha-R expressed in a baculovirus-directed-insect cell system by these two compounds, 4-MA being considerably more active than finasteride (Ki = 8.4 +/- 2.3 and 330 +/- 9 nM, respectively). This inhibition was competitive. On the other hand, inhibition by an n-hexane lipid/sterol extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr) was non-competitive and, when expressed in terms of recommended therapeutic doses, was 3-fold greater for LSESr than for finasteride. These studies suggest that LSESr might exert a regulatory inhibitory activity due to its specific lipid/sterol composition.
Human prostatic steroid 5 alpha-reductase isoforms--a comparative study of selective inhibitors. The present study describes the independent expression of the type 1 and 2 isoforms of human 5 alpha-reductase in the baculovirus-directed insect cell expression system and the selectivity of their inhibition. The catalytic properties and kinetic parameters of the recombinant isozymes were consistent with published data. The type 1 isoform displayed a neutral (range 6-8) pH optimum and the type 2 isoform an acidic (5-6) pH optimum. The type 2 isoform had higher affinity for testosterone than did the type 1 isoform (Km = 0.5 and 2.9 microM, respectively). Finasteride and turosteride were selective inhibitors of the type 2 isoform (Ki (type 2) = 7.3 and 21.7 nM compared to Ki (type 1) = 108 and 330 nM, respectively). 4-MA and the lipido-sterol extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr) markedly inhibited both isozymes (Ki (type 1) = 8.4 nM and 7.2 micrograms/ml, respectively; Ki (type 2) = 7.4 nM and 4.9 micrograms/ml, respectively). The three azasteroids were competitive inhibitors vs substrate, whereas LSESr displayed non-competitive inhibition of the type 1 isozyme and uncompetitive inhibition of the type 2 isozyme. These observations suggest that the lipid component of LSESr might be responsible for its inhibitory effect by modulating the membrane environment of 5 alpha-reductase. Partially purified recombinant 5 alpha-reductase type 1 activity was preserved by the presence of lipids indicating that lipids can exert either stimulatory or inhibitory effects on human 5 alpha-reductase.
The effect of Permixon on androgen receptors. Permixon, the liposterolic extract of the plant Serenoa Repens is a recently introduced drug for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The effect of Permixon on dihydrotestosterone and testosterone binding by eleven different tissue specimens was tested. The drug reduced the mean uptake of both hormones by 40.9% and 41.9% respectively in all tissue specimens. Since hirsutism and virilism are among other gynecological problems caused either by excessive androgen stimulation or excess endorgan response, we suggest that Permixon could be a useful treatment in such conditions and recommend further investigations of the possible therapeutic values of the drug in gynecological practice.
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of botanically derived inhibitors of 5-alpha-reductase in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. BACKGROUND: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is characterized by the structural miniaturization of androgen-sensitive hair follicles in susceptible individuals and is anatomically defined within a given pattern of the scalp. Biochemically, one contributing factor of this disorder is the conversion of testosterone (T) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) via the enzyme 5-alpha reductase (5AR). This metabolism is also key to the onset and progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Furthermore, AGA has also been shown to be responsive to drugs and agents used to treat BPH. Of note, certain botanical compounds have previously demonstrated efficacy against BPH. Here, we report the first example of a placebo-controlled, double-blind study undertaken in order to examine the benefit of these botanical substances in the treatment of AGA. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to test botanically derived 5AR inhibitors, specifically the liposterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr) and beta-sitosterol, in the treatment of AGA. Subjects: Included in this study were males between the ages of 23 and 64 years of age, in good health, with mild to moderate AGA. RESULTS: The results of this pilot study showed a highly positive response to treatment. The blinded investigative staff assessment report showed that 60% of (6/10) study subjects dosed with the active study formulation were rated as improved at the final visit. CONCLUSIONS: This study establishes the effectiveness of naturally occurring 5AR inhibitors against AGA for the first time, and justifies the expansion to larger trials.
Inhibition of type 1 and type 2 5alpha-reductase activity by free fatty acids, active ingredients of Permixon. In different cell systems, the lipido-sterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr, Permixon inhibits both type 1 and type 2 5alpha-reductase activity (5alphaR1 and 5alphaR2). LSESr is mainly constituted of fatty acids (90+/-5%) essentially as free fatty acids (80%). Among these free fatty acids, the main components are oleic and lauric acids which represent 65% and linoleic and myristic acids 15%. To evaluate the inhibitory effect of the different components of LSESr on 5alphaR1 or 5alphaR2 activity, the corresponding type 1 and type 2 human genes have been cloned and expressed in the baculovirus-directed insect cell expression system Sf9. The cells were incubated at pH 5.5 (5alphaR2) and pH 7.4 (5alphaR1) with 1 or 3nM testosterone in presence or absence of various concentrations of LSESr or of its different components. Dihydrotestosterone formation was measured with an automatic system combining HPLC and an on-line radiodetector. The inhibition of 5alphaR1 and 5alphaR2 activity was only observed with free fatty acids: esterified fatty acids, alcohols as well as sterols assayed were inactive. A specificity of the fatty acids in 5alphaR1 or 5alphaR2 inhibition has been found. Long unsaturated chains (oleic and linolenic) were active (IC(50)=4+/-2 and 13+/-3 microg/ml, respectively) on 5alphaR1 but to a much lesser extent (IC(50)>100 and 35+/-21 microg/ml, respectively) on 5alphaR2. Palmitic and stearic acids were inactive on the two isoforms. Lauric acid was active on 5alphaR1 (IC(50)=17+/-3 microg/ml) and 5alphaR2 (IC(50)=19+/-9 microg/ml). The inhibitory activity of myristic acid was evaluated on 5alphaR2 only and found active on this isoform (IC(50)=4+/-2 microg/ml). The dual inhibitory activity of LSESr on 5alpha-reductase type 1 and type 2 can be attributed to its high content in free fatty acids.
Inhibition of androgen metabolism and binding by a liposterolic extract of "Serenoa repens B" in human foreskin fibroblasts. We previously suggested [Steroids 33, (1979) 3; Steroids 37, (1981) 6] that cultured genital skin fibroblasts should prove useful for screening of potential antiandrogens in human and living target cells. "Serenoa repens" lipidic extract (S.R.E.) was recently reported (Br. J. Pharmacol., in press) to inhibit androgen action in animals. The present investigation was designed to study the antiandrogenicity of this compound in human cells: we therefore analyzed the effects of S.R.E. on the intracellular conversion of testosterone (T) to 5 alpha-reduced derivatives, and we investigated interaction of S.R.E. with the intracellular androgen-receptor complex. Since the chemical structure of the active component of S.R.E. is still unknown, results are expressed in U/ml (one unit is defined as the amount of S.R.E. required to inhibit 50% of the specific binding (IC50) of [3H]1881 to rat prostate cytosol). S.R.E. at different dilutions (5.7 to 28.6 U/ml) is added to culture media containing [3H]T or [3H]dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and incubated at 37 degrees C with cultured fibroblasts. 28.6 U/ml S.R.E. significantly alters the formation of DHT and strongly inhibits 3 ketosteroid reductase mediated conversion of DHT to 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol, characterized radiochemically by thin-layer chromatography. S.R.E. is a good competitor for the whole cell androgen receptor: 7.1 U/ml S.R.E. gives 50% inhibition of the binding of 2 X 10(-9) M [3H]DHT to its receptor. Competitive binding assays after cell fractionation indicate that S.R.E. is less potent in nuclear than in cytosol receptors. Sucrose gradient centrifugation of the radioactive cell lysate of fibroblasts demonstrates that 28.6 U/ml S.R.E. abolishes 70% of the 3.6 S receptor-complex radioactive peak. The present studies show that S.R.E. inhibits 5 alpha-reductase, 3-ketosteroid reductase and receptor binding of androgens in cultured human foreskin fibroblasts. As the search for the ideal antiandrogen continues, S.R.E. appears to be a new type of antiandrogenic compound as therapeutics for the treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy, hirsutism and so forth.
Comparison of phytotherapy (Permixon) with finasteride in the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia: a randomized international study of 1,098 patients. BACKGROUND: Controversy regarding the relative efficacy of treatments for the relief of the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). METHODS: This was a 6-month double-blind randomized equivalence study that compared the effects of a plant extract (320 mg Permixon) with those of a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor (5 mg finasteride) in 1,098 men with moderate BPH using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) as the primary end-point. RESULTS: Both Permixon and finasteride decreased the IPSS (-37% and -39%, respectively), improved quality of life (by 38 and 41%), and increased peak urinary flow rate (+25% and +30%, P = 0.035), with no statistical difference in the percent of responders with a 3 ml/sec improvement. Finasteride markedly decreased prostate volume (-18%) and serum PSA levels (-41%); Permixon improved symptoms with little effect on volume (-6%) and no change in PSA levels. Permixon fared better than finasteride in a sexual function questionnaire and gave rise to less complaints of decreased libido and impotence. CONCLUSIONS: Both treatments relieve the symptoms of BPH in about two-thirds of patients but, unlike finasteride, Permixon has little effect on so-called androgen-dependent parameters. This suggests that other pathways might also be involved in the symptomatology of BPH.
Serenoa repens (Permixon). A review of its pharmacology and therapeutic efficacy in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Serenoa repens (Permixon) has been available for several years for the treatment of men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The drug is the n-hexane lipidosterolic extract of the dwarf American palm (also known as Serenoa repens) and is a complex mixture of various compounds. A number of pharmacodynamic effects have been demonstrated with the lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESR), suggesting multiple mechanisms of action including in vitro inhibition of both type 1 and type 2 isoenzymes of 5 alpha-reductase and interference with binding of dihydrotestosterone to cytosolic androgen receptors in prostate cells. In controlled clinical trials in men with BPH, oral administration of Serenoa repens 160 mg twice daily for 1 to 3 months was generally superior to placebo in improving subjective symptoms, such as dysuria, as well as objective parameters. The frequency of nocturia was reduced by 33 to 74%, while urinary frequency during the day decreased by 11 to 43% and peak urinary flow rate increased by 26 to 50% with Serenoa repens. Corresponding values for placebo were 13 to 39%, 1 to 29% and 2 to 35%. The only large comparative trial conducted to date, in which > 1000 men with moderate BPH were randomised to receive Serenoa repens 160 mg twice daily or finasteride 5 mg once daily for 6 months, demonstrated similar efficacy between the two drugs. No statistically significant difference was demonstrated between treatment groups for improvement in patient self-rated quality-of-life scores and the primary end-point of objective symptom score; International Prostate Symptom Score improved by 37% with Serenoa repens compared with 39% with finasteride. In much smaller comparative trials, few significant differences were demonstrated between Serenoa repens and alpha 1-receptor antagonists, and larger randomised trials of adequate duration are required to better compare the clinical efficacy of these drugs. The most frequently reported adverse events in clinical trials with Serenoa repens have been minor gastrointestinal problems (e.g. nausea and abdominal pain). In conclusion, Serenoa repens is well tolerated and has greater efficacy than placebo and similar efficacy to finasteride in improving symptoms in men with BPH. Although there is a need for further comparative studies, particularly with alpha 2-receptor antagonists, available data indicate that Serenoa repens is a useful alternative to alpha 1-receptor antagonists and finasteride in the treatment of men with BPH.
Comparison of phytotherapy (Permixon) with finasteride in the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia: a randomized international study of 1,098 patients. BACKGROUND: Controversy regarding the relative efficacy of treatments for the relief of the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). METHODS: This was a 6-month double-blind randomized equivalence study that compared the effects of a plant extract (320 mg Permixon) with those of a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor (5 mg finasteride) in 1,098 men with moderate BPH using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) as the primary end-point. RESULTS: Both Permixon and finasteride decreased the IPSS (-37% and -39%, respectively), improved quality of life (by 38 and 41%), and increased peak urinary flow rate (+25% and +30%, P = 0.035), with no statistical difference in the percent of responders with a 3 ml/sec improvement. Finasteride markedly decreased prostate volume (-18%) and serum PSA levels (-41%); Permixon improved symptoms with little effect on volume (-6%) and no change in PSA levels. Permixon fared better than finasteride in a sexual function questionnaire and gave rise to less complaints of decreased libido and impotence. CONCLUSIONS: Both treatments relieve the symptoms of BPH in about two-thirds of patients but, unlike finasteride, Permixon has little effect on so-called androgen-dependent parameters. This suggests that other pathways might also be involved in the symptomatology of BPH.

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