Luteolin(Loo tee o lin)
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Luteolin has been shown to inhibit plasma PGD2 up to 100%. One study found it a potent inhibitor of human mast
cell activation and thus PGD2.
Luteolin is a flavonoid and thought to play a role in the human body as an antioxidant, free radical scavenger
and a promoter of carbohydrate metabolism. Research results indicate luteolin as an anti-inflammatory agent. Dietary
sources include celery, green pepper, thyme, perilla, chamomile tea, carrots, olive oil, peppermint, rosemary,
navel oranges, and oregano.
Topically as a 5% solution, using 30 100mg lutoelin pills, 20ml ethonol, 20ml propylene Glycol and 20ml distilled water. Used
|Significant Side Effects
Effects of luteolin, quercetin and baicalein on immunoglobulin E-mediated mediator release from human cultured mast cells.
Flavonoids have a variety of activities including anti-allergic activities, and are known to inhibit histamine release from human basophils and murine mast cells.
The effects of luteolin, a flavone, on the immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated allergic mediator release from human cultured mast cells (HCMCs) were investigated and compared with those of baicalein and quercetin.
HCMCs were sensitized with IgE, and then treated with flavonoids before challenge with antihuman IgE. The amount of released mediators was determined as was mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ concentration, protein kinase C (PKC) translocation and phosphorylation of intracellular proteins were detected after anti-IgE stimulation.
Luteolin, baicalein and quercetin inhibited the release of histamine, leukotrienes (LTs), prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) from HCMC in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, the three flavonoids inhibited A23187-induced histamine release. As concerns Ca2+ signalling, luteolin and quercetin inhibited Ca2+ influx strongly, although baicalein did slightly. With regard to PKC signalling, luteolin and quercetin inhibited PKC translocation and PKC activity strongly, although baicalein did slightly. The suppression of Ca2+ and PKC signallings might contribute to the inhibition of mediator release. The activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), that were activated just before the release of LTs and PGD2 and GM-CSF mRNA expression in IgE-mediated signal transduction events, were clearly suppressed by luteolin and quercetin. In contrast, the flavonoids did not affect the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathway.
These results indicate that luteolin is a potent inhibitor of human mast cell activation through the inhibition of Ca2+ influx and PKC activation.
The flavonoid luteolin inhibits niacin-induced flush.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:
Sustained release niacin effectively lowers serum cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides, while raising HDL. However, 75% of patients experience cutaneous warmth and itching known as flush, leading to discontinuation. Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) reduces this flush only by about 30%, presumably through decreasing prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). We investigated whether niacin-induced flush in a rat model involves PGD2 and 5-HT, and the effect of certain flavonoids.
Three skin temperature measurements from each ear were recorded with an infrared pyrometer for each time point immediately before i.p. injection with either niacin or a flavonoid. The temperature was then measured every 10 min for 60 min.
Niacin (7.5 mg per rat, equivalent to a human dose of 1750 mg per 80 kg) maximally increased ear temperature to 1.9+/-0.2 degrees C at 45 min. Quercetin and luteolin (4.3 mg per rat; 1000 mg per human), administered i.p. 45 min prior to niacin, inhibited the niacin effect by 96 and 88%, respectively. Aspirin (1.22 mg per rat; 325 mg per human) inhibited the niacin effect by only 30%. Niacin almost doubled plasma PGD2 and 5-HT, but aspirin reduced only PGD2 by 86%. In contrast, luteolin inhibited both plasma PGD2 and 5-HT levels by 100 and 67%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS. Niacin-induced skin temperature increase is associated with PGD2 and 5-HT elevations in rats; luteolin may be a better inhibitor of niacin-induced flush because it blocks the rise in both mediators.
A quercetin containing supplement reduces niacin-induced flush in humans.
Coronary artery disease is associated with increased serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL, but low levels of HDL. The most potent agent capable of reversing this trend is the vitamin nicotinic acid (niacin). However, compliance even with extended-release preparations and addition of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is hampered by the development of a feeling of erythema and burning ("flush"), especially on the face. We recently showed that the natural flavonoids quercetin and luteolin can eliminate "flush", as well as inhibit both niacin-induced plasma prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and serotonin increase in an animal model. We conducted a pilot clinical study in humans. Four normal male subjects received (a) 1 g immediate release niacin either alone or after (b) the dietary formulation (Algonot-plus) containing 150 mg quercetin per capsule. Subjects completed a visual scale (1 = no, 5 = worst response) symptom assessment. Erythema and burning sensation scores were both 4.75+/-0.50 and lasted for 3.63+/-1.11 hours. After Algonot-plus administration, both scores were reduced to 2.5+/-0.58 and lasted only for 1.68+/-0.70 hours. Quercetin also inhibited methylnicotinate-induced human mast cell PGD2 release. These preliminary results suggest that quercetin could reduce niacin-induced "flush" in humans.
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